Introduction to international development approaches actors and issues pdf

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Introduction to International Development: Approaches, Actors and Issues, 2nd 6 Globalization and Development Pierre Beaudet Introduction pdf. Paul A. Haslam, Jessica Schafer and Pierre Beaudet, eds. Introduction to Introduction to International Development: Approaches, Actors, Issues and. PDF | SUSAN SPRONK and others published INTRODUCTION TO INTERNATIONAL Its purpose is to introduce the student to the basics, particularly the major actors, issues, and .. Development: Approaches, Actors and Issues. Don Mills.

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Introduction To International Development Approaches Actors And Issues Pdf

Introduction to International Development: Approaches, Actors, and Issues. by Paul Haslam; Jessica Shafer; Pierre Beaudet. eBook: Document. English. Introduction to International Development: Approaches, Actors, and Issues – By Paul A. Haslam, Jessica Schafer and Pierre Beaudet. Introduction to International. Development: Approaches, Actors, and Issues. Ontario: Oxford University Press, Paul A. Haslam, Jessica Schafer, and Pierre.

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You would encounter a wide notice the rich diversity of human experience and variety of political organizations: You would see could not fail to notice that certain areas—towns, a wide range of activities people perform to earn a cities, countries, and regions—exhibit signs of living, from people driving water buffalo to cultivate material wealth: By from London.

In all of these places, you health care for survival. Still other theories of patterns of survival over which they exercise little development hold that the economic logic of capitalism control.

For example, development. The next section considers the words it can be argued that colonial conquest and occupation and labels that scholars, practitioners, and the by European military and political powers caused popular media use in talking about development.

PHOTO 1. The progress available for the improvement and growth of old imperialism—exploitation for foreign profit—has underdeveloped areas. More than half of the people no place in our plans. Their economic life is primitive and stagnant.

For the first time in Source: Inaugural Address, President Harry S. Truman, 20 January history, humanity possesses the knowledge and the , in Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States skill to relieve the suffering of these people. Understanding the it has come to be seen as derogatory and verging on history of labelling within the field of international supremacist. Those that meet the standards are Shenton, The Third Estate had a and static denotation?

Some Eastern European very diverse membership, from peasants virtually countries with low scores on the Human Development enslaved under feudal lords to bourgeois merchants Index discussed below are not commonly considered with great wealth, who had little in common part of the Third World, whereas countries of South apart from exclusion from the nobility and clergy.

America may be automatically included even though Similarly, the Third World to which Sauvy referred in some of them, such as Argentina and Chile, have the s included countries with diverse economic, achieved high human development scores. Although the they may be admitted into the coveted circle of First World and Second World designations became acceptable participants in global economic exchange.

Apart from a wavering by which NIC status is determined: This understanding of development any enduring similarities among the countries that will be explored further in Chapters 3 and 7.

A produced anomalies. GDP is a measure of the value of glance at recent public discussions on the Internet goods and services produced in a national economy about which countries should be considered Third and can be high as a result of natural resource wealth, World suggests that many people feel it is a pejorative, even when other sectors of its economy and social patronizing term and therefore prefer their own well-being may not show signs of development such country not to be included within the category.

See the World Bank website for more further in the next section. The World Bank has established its own system of The term Fourth World has come into usage more classification, partitioning countries into low-, middle-, recently, although it is not yet common or central in and high-income groups as a basis for determining the the international development lexicon.

It has been loan programs for which a country is eligible to apply. The World Bank has further conflict, such as Somalia and Afghanistan. There is work in the s of the Canadian Aboriginal leader also a second category of high-income countries: World Bank, accessed at: The phrase subjects, or objects of development. The idea of may take better account of the fact that poverty and strength-in-numbers underlies the hopefulness of social conditions formerly identified with the Third these terms.

We targets for development does imply characteristics need to be aware that how we talk about development beyond simply location in the southern hemisphere, shapes and is shaped by our culturally informed since Australia and New Zealand, for example, are assumptions and historical position, as well as by donor rather than recipient countries in international existing relations of power and knowledge. Words development, while some countries in the northern or labels, which appear to be non-political, natural, hemisphere receive aid and exhibit socio-economic or instinctively rational, should be examined for the characteristics similar to countries of the South.

Yet, at the same time, we should recognize GDP per capita is an extremely useful way of the possibility for creativity in discursive practice comparing levels of development. It also gives us and search for ways in which language can be a force the most widely used measure of how countries for transformation Wood, GDP growth rates the percentage are fully determined by those who believe themselves change in national income between any two years to be their architects.

Instead, we need to recognize are like the Academy Awards of the developing the agency exercised by those who have responded world, clearly indicating which economies have been to, reacted to, and resisted being the objects of performing in terms of adding wealth and which development Crush, However, growth rates in developing countries, where the economy might be based on a Although vast diversity exists in the standards of living few exported products or resources, are very volatile between, among, and within developing countries— and may be high one year and low the next.

Different approaches but these rates are more stable over time. In , he argues, represents aspiration for betterment. This approach was most common during the increases in productivity in agriculture, natural s and s under the influence of theories such resource extraction, or industrialization. GDP per capita figures petrochemicals. This gives an average society in such a way that most people would benefit. Although a the poor. Poverty is always eliminated more quickly good indicator of the degree of industrialization, GDP when GDP growth is combined with improvements tells us relatively little about the extent of poverty— greater equality in the distribution of income.

It is possible for countries Latin America, although an upper-middle-income to grow rapidly in GDP per capita but for only the area of the developing world, is also the region with richest segments of society to benefit.

In this respect, the most unequal distribution of income. This means development cannot be as simple as GDP growth, that the super-rich and the super-poor coexist in the because growth does not necessarily reduce poverty. Brazil, one of the most from the overall growth of the economy, we need to unequal countries in the world, has European-trained include another concept: The share of national income appropriated that wealth is owned by the rich, and how much the by the richest 20 per cent and that appropriated poorest earn in comparison to the wealthiest.

Indeed, by the poorest 20 per cent hardly changed over income inequality is the direct link between GDP per the — period, despite significant growth capita and the number of people living in poverty. Income inequality can be measured in two ways: In the top quintile took home almost 62 per a comparison of the income earned by different cent of the national income while the bottom strata of the population and the Gini coefficient.

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The degree Income inequality is often evaluated by dividing the of inequality between the top 10 per cent and the population into five or ten equally populous strata, bottom 10 per cent is even more pronounced: Table 1. A standard comparison is little changed in regard to income distribution over between the earnings of the wealthiest 20 per cent the year period from to , yet it also of the population and the poorest 40 per cent the shows reason for hope.

In the —7 period the ninth and tenth deciles compared to the first to latest date for which there are figures , the Brazilian fourth deciles. However, the Gini coefficient is the government made a concerted attempt to channel most commonly used measure of income inequality. This means that high GDP growth is not 4 In Latin America, for example, this Source: World Bank, World databank: African descent.

Poverty, however, Seers, When inequality becomes part is a difficult concept to define.

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It is usually defined of a national culture, it undermines the broad and as an extremely low level of income. For example, diffuse social trust, what Robert Putnam, among the World Bank distinguishes between absolute and others, has called social capital Fukuyama, , moderate poverty in much of its work.

Absolute Putnam, Social capital refers to the extent poverty refers to being below the minimum level to which individuals are willing to co-operate in of income required for physical survival. Public parity—that is, adjusted for the downloading power of a opinion polling in highly unequal societies such US dollar in the local market. Gated communities and barred windows are Moderate poverty is typically considered to be an commonplace.

Although inequality is a common feature of most In the s, however, American sociologists such developing countries, it is very difficult to explain as Talcott Parsons and Kenneth Clark, addressing why this should be so in the first place.

There are poverty and in particular the status of African many possible reasons, some of which are discussed Americans in US society, began to develop the in more detail in subsequent chapters.

At least three concepts of relative poverty and social exclusion. First, the impact of Relative poverty refers to a kind of poverty that does colonial rule or neo-colonial economic relations may not threaten daily survival but in which an individual have forged or consolidated unequal social relations may not have the income necessary to fully participate based on slavery, feudalism, and landownership in his or her society Thomas, One may well imagine how an individual Chapters 2 and 3.

Second, the characteristics of late without computer access and knowledge would be industrialization—that is, the use of inappropriate seriously hampered in terms of his or her ability to capital-intensive technology—reduce the employment access important information and even do basic tasks potential of GDP growth see Chapters 7 and Third, such as looking for employment.

The poverty we refer inadequate or non-existent social safety nets and to in developed countries is almost exclusively, even regressive taxation systems prevent the redistribution for the very poorest, an issue of relative rather than of national income towards the poor and middle absolute or even moderate poverty.

The good news is that although discussed in greater detail in Chapter Targeted social reveals that poverty is not just about income levels; programs have reduced the incidence of poverty while it also has social, political, psychological, and moral leaving inequality untouched.

In other words, although adequate income to cover the needs of basic survival; GDP per capita is a good indicator of poverty as employment including any non-paid social role income deprivation, it does not tell the whole that contributes to self-respect and development of story. Consequently, alleviating poverty or doing the personality ; improvement in the distribution of development also must be much more complicated income; an education, particularly literacy; political than simply spurring economic growth or even participation; and national autonomy belonging to reducing poverty.

Three thinkers in particular have a politically and economically independent nation.

These ideas were higher incomes. Furthermore, male African Americans further developed in the work of Nobel Prize- from Harlem were even worse off than the average, winning economist Amartya Sen, who argues that being less likely to reach the age of 40 than men in development should not be seen simply as rising Bangladesh ibid.

It is popular book, or the capabilities approach. In this respect, freedoms comes through access to government services. The inverse may include a lack of access to health and welfare of this observation is that sometimes low income does services, gender or ethnic discrimination, and not reflect the opportunities people have.

This should be limits on basic political, civic, and economic rights. In no way does this income level reflect the real or the opportunities that people have inability to capabilities and freedoms commanded by students or feed themselves, receive an education, access health the opportunities before them. In such as civil and political rights and government defence of GDP per capita, it is easily measured, services —can improve their ability to make choices and levels of absolute and moderate poverty can be that they value.

At the same time, an increased clearly established according to certain income cut- ability to make choices feeds back to build their off points. Some authors have expand the choices of those who had participated in criticized such an approach as being impossible to the political process by voting.

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Nonetheless, efforts have freedom enhances the ability of people to help been made to construct measures that better capture themselves and also to influence the world, and these the multi-dimensional aspects of development. The Human Development Index is a composite measure of three equally weighted factors: In this respect, the index recognizes that being and poverty.

It may seem obvious, therefore, income levels are important but that other factors that the negative consequences of poverty for human also are significant in human development.

One health and well-being are on the whole a bad thing, may view the education and longevity measures as both within your own country and in other countries proxies that take account of the various government throughout the world. You probably also believe that services that Seers, Goulet, and Sen see as crucial it follows logically from this that we should take to expanding the range of individual choice. In addition, even among those who do accept more are considered highly developed, while those that action should be taken to address global poverty, with a score of 0.

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In the Human Development how we can justify action on global poverty and what Report, classifications are given for countries in the actions are justified. Several influential approaches to following categories: Following an examination of these with HDI values ranging on a scale between 0 and 1. Even Norway, holding the or when taking part in international development number one spot on the HDI, does not do as well in policy-making or practice.

Do our moral duties extend beyond spot but has slightly higher life expectancy and a GDP our families, neighbours, and fellow citizens? Perhaps Over the course of the twentieth century, most most importantly, the HDI has embedded the idea Western societies developed systems of social of poverty and development as a multi-dimensional support to ensure that no citizen would be left to phenomenon in the modern approach to development.

Morally, one argument for the have entered the mainstream. The countries are grouped according to the World Bank classification system , at: There are debates practice of development call into question the validity surrounding the meaning of development, contestation of the contemporary development enterprise. They over the best approach to achieve development, and emphasize the destructive and disciplinary power of even questions about whether it is worth pursuing development in its interventions in and transformations at all see Chapter 3.

However, discourse would have us believe Watts, At the same time, obfuscating its negative effects on people. Just as a body of scholarship has uncovered diverse forms. Society charged the state, therefore, defenders of Western capitalism perceived a political with providing security for all citizens through threat from the socialist alternatives to market programs such as unemployment insurance, income capitalism proposed by groups within these societies assistance, universal health care, and education.

At from the Global North. This was the beginning of the same time, geopolitical interests played a role international development. National boundaries are therefore of the South. However, while the welfare state became little or no moral importance in considerations of ubiquitous among European and North American justice. The majority of cosmopolitans also believe nations—although the interpretation of basic needs that some common values apply across humanity and rights of citizens has varied substantially among and some responsibilities exist towards all humanity these nations see Esping-Andersen, —a global Dower, , cited in Gasper, Libertarians, for Nonetheless, many people believe that the principles example, also accord low value to national boundaries of basic human rights and security should apply to but do not believe in strong duties towards others all humans, regardless of where they happen to live individually, nationally, or globally see below for in the world.

Thus, we have moved from a time when further discussion of libertarianism. Within this body of cosmopolitan thinking, Charles Jones identifies three main types of justification for global redistributive justice: These three views are outlined in Box 1.

Justifications for rights-based Contractarian philosophy holds that moral norms are morality are complex, but they include the idea that justified according to the idea of a contract or mutual we have rights because we have interests or because agreement as in the political philosophy of Thomas of our status.

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Hobbes, John Locke, and, most recently, John Rawls. Box 1. He supports this argument in several ways. Singer therefore proposes that although we wealth they have inherited. Similar premises underlie should accept the stringent moral duty as required by the argument by Walter Rodney , an influential principles of justice, we could promote a more feasible Guyanese writer, that international development and policy for people actually to follow.

For example, assistance are simply a way to give back what already everyone could be encouraged perhaps required to had been taken from the Global South. But, Singer argues, prevent needless and extreme suffering regardless are we not in the same position, morally speaking, of national boundaries. Imagine you are walking to when we choose to spend money on frivolous or work and see a small child fall into a pond.

She is in luxurious items that are no more important than the danger of drowning. You could easily walk into the muddy shoes in the example, rather than use that pond and save her without endangering your own money to prevent someone from dying of starvation safety, but you would get your clothing and shoes for example, through donation to humanitarian muddy. You would have to go home and change, agencies that have proven competence in delivering causing you to be late for work, and your shoes might aid to the starving and needy?

And, he argues, this be ruined. Our moral intuition tells us that you should is clearly true even if that starvation is occurring in clearly put aside those minor inconveniences in order another part of the world that we may never visit. Furthermore, it more important, morally speaking, than a human life should make no moral difference whether this little or many of them? Furthermore, without the basic could be avoided under a different and practically right to subsistence, a person cannot exercise any possible institutional arrangement.

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